Geoelectric resistivity is a method that involves electrical measurements on the ground surface that determines the thickness of the surface. The equipment that helps in doing this process is exclusively called the resistivity meter. It is based on the principle that, around the current lying electrode, the distribution of electric potential depends on the electrical resistivities. The process involves measuring the potential difference between two article electrodes introduced in the ground surface when the current flows.
Once people know what groundwater is, the following question will be where groundwater is and how to find it? For underground water exploration, there are so many methods used such as,
Electric resistivity method
Seismic refraction method
Electromagnetic method and much more.
Of all these, the resistivity method is considered one of the effective and suitable ways for groundwater exploration.
But how the resistivity meter for groundwater exploration works? Let us get in step by step,
The resistivity meter consists of two electrodes; the method of electrode configuration differs from one meter to another.
These two electrodes from the resistivity meter deliver current to the earth, which is the current electrode.
The other two electrodes are a potential electrode that reads the potential difference between the current electrodes at a certain distance.
The longer the current electrodes are placed, the more profound is the electric current through the rock layers.
From the current and the voltage produced, an apparent resistivity is calculated with the geometric factor k.
The resistivity depends on the distance between the four electrodes and the arrangements.
Some of the major electrodes used in the process are Wenner, pole-pole, pole-dipole, dipole-dipole, etc.
The electrical resistivity meter for groundwater is the best and effective tool for the exploration of underground water. Conductance and resistance are clear indicators for two factors that indicate the aquifer for groundwater exploration and show areas for better groundwater exploration. The most usual method used to measure the earth's resistivity through soil is four electrodes. AC is driven through a pair of electrodes, and the potential is measured with a second pair of electrodes.
Such surface resistivity methods have been efficiently used for groundwater exploration for many years. Earth resistivity is related to geological parameters from the subsurface, including rock and soil type, porosity, and degree of saturation. Hence it is one of the reliable methods for the exploration of groundwater.
Geoelectric surveys have the advantage of data acquisition and sub-surface modeling that can be done only with simple, compact equipment like geoelectric resistivity meters with reliable data accuracy, short time, and low cost.
Groundwater is a freshwater supply that is used for so many purposes. With the increase in demand and development processes, people started to explore and exploit groundwater resources. The geoelectric resistivity method is the most suitable and cost-effective method for groundwater exploration. It is based on subsurface determination, which can yield valuable information on the structure, composition, and water content of the soil. Geoelectric can also be used to determine the aquifer depth and water quality of the aquifer.
Many groundwater investigations are necessary for densely populated areas. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate techniques that are cost-effective where the resistivity meter falls under such a category.